Guide for Guides : Ethical Psychedelic Spaceholding

Guide for Guides

Ethical Psychedelic Spaceholding

Spaceholding Skillbuilding unifying Transpersonal Somatic Psychology and Festival Frontline Risk Reduction 

For the ‘Accompaniment Academy’

By the Altered-State Accompaniment Angel : Alexa ‘ X RAZMA’

V. 21.2.4

{ { active editing draft Gdoc } }

Author Bio and Reasons for Writing

              I am a 15+ year veteran teacher of risk reduction, writing this guide from a mounting sense of responsibility– each year, due to the growing publicity of the psychedelic movement, there are more people out there experimenting with mind-altering substances, often either with inexperienced sitters, or no sitter at all {please at the very least find a friend and have them read this guide!}. Having a trained sitter drastically decreases the likelihood of negative outcomes {eg. not risking your life unnecessarily because you have a reality anchor} and can reduce a lot of fear {via knowing someone is there specifically watching out for you}.  I hope that sharing the skills I have been trained in and new methods I developed when I saw gaps will increase access to safe and supportive sitters. I have been working in risk reduction at increasingly complex levels of organization for 15 years now and want to share what we have learned. In this tome I combine a meta-perspective having taken every training I could find in risk reduction and blending it with controlled container ‘ceremony’ skills and a graduate level background in transpersonal somatic psychology. This well balanced foundation is also enriched by new tools I have developed from my ‘in the wild’ work at gatherings of all stripes and sizes on the ‘festival frontlines’ of entheogenic exploration. I have been called the Navy SEAL / Green Beret / Special Ops of Psychedelic Spaceholding and I want to share my hard-won wisdom to make healing safer and more accessible to all. Additionally, I am known in the field as someone who has a special capacity to work with those in ‘post-verbal’ spaces, and I will share my innovative insights in how to communicate directly to another person’s nervous system to convey to them that they are safe, even if they are past the point of being able to understand or participate in verbal communication.

              This being said, although hopefully most of the time most people will have an easier time then some of the techniques developed in the trenches from the trying tales in this tome, I believe that anyone who is purporting to be able to hold space needs to at the very least to be aware of what has happened in the past, and thus could happen again, and to be prepared to the best of their ability to deal with the potential for extreme situations. Worst case is that everyone will have overprepared. Best case is that the lines of inquiry in this tome will lead to more clear and harmonious interpersonal relating. Risk reduction calls for us to be aware of the potential for harm, try as best we can to steer away from unnecessary hazards, prepare for the worst, do what we can to encourage the best, and make informed decisions. As a spaceholder, you owe it to the people that are putting their trust in you to keep them safe.

              In addition, this guidebook goes beyond assuming a spaceholder’s positive intent / ‘mindreading’ and actively aims to equip you with the tools necessary to have clarifying conversations, encourage ethical behavior, and to evaluate your spaceholder. Although I have chosen to focus specifically on the container of psychedelic spaceholding, these principals can be applied to any situation in which people are holding space or creating transformational experiences for each other {eg. VR / AR / XR experiences, installation art, immersive experience design, etc}.

Types of Space :

Controlled Ceremonial Container

              A controlled ceremonial container is often the most ‘typical’ scenario that comes to mind when most people think of spaceholding, in which there is opportunity to pre-arrange details and agreements for the session. This type of {at least partially} pre-planned situation is in contrast to Spaceholding ‘In the Wild’ in which you may not know anything about the person you are safekeeping at all {Spaceholding ‘In the Wild’ will be covered later as it is a more challenging context and it is preferable for comprehending the basics before adding additional complexity}. 


Screening is an ethical matter for several reasons including : the need for due diligence, informed consent, conscientiousness in working within your scope of practice, and openness to referrals or finding a better spaceholder fit for the needs of the journier.

Informed Consent : Physical / Psyche Risk

Part of screening is determining the experience level of your Journeyer with altered states of consicousness and their level of self-knowledge. It is essential to share potential risks of psychedelics if they are naive – especially for first time or neophyte Journeyers this becomes more important as they have not yet swum in the deep end {although seasoned psychonauts {= wide-roaming explorers of the mind} can also be taken for unexpected rides, so it is still wise to discuss courses of actions ahead of time in case challenge arises}.

 Each spaceholder has to find the balance within themselves between informed consent as to risk and not excessively invoking a ‘nocebo’ effect. Moving away from brash blustery overconfidence and towards a reasoned conversation about how to mitigate risk, and what to do in case of emergency, is a helpful direction to orient. One way to cover the topic of the potential for extreme situations in a constructive way is to ask your Journeyer what they would want you to do for them in case they need extra care. 

{This is covered in the section : intense situation preference inquiry}

Consent around Capability / Capacity : Working within your Scope of Practice

              When asked to hold space in a controlled ceremonial container / pre-planned way, I recommend meeting in person or at the very least having several phone calls at least a month before the session {ideally several months in advance so that the material can be worked on in therapy, dreams, and other technologies of the subconscious}. In the initial conversation the Spaceholder should seek to determine if they are good fit to work together with the Journeyer, in that the Spaceholder feels capable of supporting the Journeyer’s specific inquiry/inquiries via being informed and comfortable about the main areas of exploration {eg. someone who is of a pro-life political orientation Spaceholding for someone who seeks to find compassion for their choice to have an abortion would not be a good fit}.

Even with alignment of the Journeyer’s primary intention and the Spaceholder’s skill set, there are also two possibilities that may diverge the team from the pre-planned path of focus: there may be another topic that emerges to the fore as unexpectedly salient for the Journeyer within the session, or there may also be an eruption of a buried issue to the surface that the Journeyer may not have even been consciously aware of {such as childhood abuse that was suppressed}. Thus, as the Spaceholder, it is ideal to have an in-depth screening and rapport building period of time with your Journeyer so you can get a sense for what may come up {even if ‘unlikely’ or not the chosen focus of the session} and gaining knowledge about the Journeyer {you may even be able to observe patterns across various facets of the Journeyer’s life and share these perspective if the Journeyer wishes for that type of Spaceholding – which we will discuss more extensively in the ‘Presence Philosophies’ section of this tome *}. Unexpected deep traumas can certainly surface without anyone expecting them, and this is why I also believe it is essential for Spaceholders to be wise in the ways of recognizing trauma reactions and supporting those who may be in the throes of a PTSD flashback {Post Traumatic Stress Disorder}. There is more information about how to support those reliving Trauma States in the ‘Trauma Support’ section **. 

              Conversely, do not let lack of personal experience be the only reason to automatically cause you to refer your Journeyer to someone else, especially if you already have long-standing rapport with your Journeyer. Explore educating yourself in the life experiences of your Journeyer and how to support them via books, lectures, courses, and films in the subject material relevant to this history of the Journeyer. Ask your Journeyer what materials they specifically recommend you take in.  Contrary to expectation, there may be profound reconciliation to be found in for the Journeyer in feeling the supportive presence of someone who is on ‘the other side of the equation’ {such as a cis het female bodied Journeyer who has a close cis het male bodied friend she feels safe with Spacehold for her while she unwinds the patterns of patriarchy}. It is worth noting that an ‘activating pairing’ is more likely to go sideways, so two Spaceholders would be recommended in that instance. 

Additionally, the Spaceholder ideally is only holding space to the level of their training, especially when considering the trauma background of the Journeyer. For example, if the Journeyer has a trauma history that includes intergenerational incest and the Spaceholder has no experience in how to provide support to someone who has experienced this ongoing level of embodied and emotional abuse, the Spaceholder should refer the Journeyer to someone who has training in how to support the recovery of incest survivors. If either being trained or referring out to someone who has training is not possible, at the very least, the Spaceholder should deeply educate themselves in the literature available on the topic as a proxy for training. Specifically, this may occur due to the lack of access of psychedelic therapy at this time, which may require reaching out to friends with similar backgrounds to engage in more of a peer to peer spaceholding context. 

Refusal to Refer

As a Spaceholder, it is essential for you to feel comfortable and capable saying no to sitting with the Journeyer if you or they do not feel you are the best fit. There are a few common reasons that saying no to Spaceholding can be challenging. You may feel as though this person has no one else to turn to, or even that you are the only one who can help this person, or you may have a ‘savior complex’ that becomes activated. You may be their close friend and really care for them, or you may think you know what’s best for them, which can turn paternalistic. It is good to acknowledge these often disowned parts of ourselves as healers and be doing personal shadow integration work to not allow these patterns to rule our behavior. 

Some problematic energies that may occur are :

Never Saying No

Care Vulture / Caretaking Attachment Orientation 

If you find yourself unable to say no {to a client, to a session, to delaying supporting someone else when you need to take care of your needs}, it may mean you have a compulsion towards caretaking, which may have evolved as a survival strategy due to the way in which you were raised and the subsequent attachment patterns that are your basic interpersonal neuronal wiring {for more information about this look into psychological ‘Attachment Theory’}. It may also indicate a lack of boundaries. Speaking from the lexicon of psychology, searching for additional information about differentiation, transference, and countertransference may be helpful {the skills of knowing what is yours to own and what is not yours}. The opposite side of this enmeshment would be not taking on any responsibility for the effect that you are having on others, which is discussed below. 

If you are over-identified in your personal narrative as a ‘master healer’ 

If you always think you know what is right for someone else, this is your ego being overly attached to a narrative / identity of yourself as a healer. This when carried too far promotes a paternalistic attitude and ‘knowing what’s best’ {this being said you can have a sense due to experience that something has usually been more effective in the past for most people you have encountered, but if you are not open to feedback that you may be incorrect, that is when the dynamic turns problematic}. This can also move into the realm of ‘spiritual bypassing’ in which you are not acknowledging the role that you are playing in effecting a situation through not doing your own personal self development work {search terms for additional research include : projection, transference, countertransference, and gaslighting}. This can also cause a guru or narcissistic type of energy to grow unchecked. Additionally, this type of egoic growth often leads to a situation in which you decide that you no longer need to be seeking mentors, holding yourself responsible for your impact on others, not seeking feedback, and not seeking accountability. 

Remember that your main work as a spaceholder is to create a space of safety and consideration that allows the Journeyer’s inner healer to emerge and gain strength and confidence.  You are not the only one making the healing happen {can you feel the power dynamic in this mindset?}, you are merely creating the container of care to supporting the client’s own wholeness to emerge.  

Financial gain 

 Additionally, if you are motivated by the allure of the ‘cool’ aura around this work, or are attached to be able to ‘handle anything’ without assistance, you will be unlikely to turn anyone down, even if someone you know may be a better fit for what the client is needing. This will also make you less likely to ‘kick it sideways’ or call for help even though it may be needed {such as in a medical emergency}. As a generalized rule, the Journeyers needs should take precedence over your preferences / personal view of yourself {within reason for your own sense of safety}, and when this is not the case there is a clear ethical snarl that is worth untangling.

Additionally, over time you will find that there are many unglamorous aspects to Psychedelic Spaceholding which may include cleaning up bodily fluids, long hours of focused attention on someone else, holding a space of non-judgement and no shame, consoling people in the depths of their depression / existential dread / fear of death, and seeing people in a lot of physical or emotional pain that you may be powerless to remove. This in addition to considering the high level of responsibility a Spaceholder takes on when as the guardian of someone’s psyche and physical body, the unpleasant conversations called for when needing to hold others accountable to their intentions, and broader ethical responsibilities to the field – there is a lot of  ‘invisible’ caregiving that needs to be considered in this emotional endurance work.

Financial need

If for your survival you need to be taking on only paying psychedelic spaceholding clients this sets up a power dynamics that encourages dependency on clients going into multiple sessions, the pursuit of more clients, and a sense of needing to take every client. Although many spaceholders find it appropriate to ask for donations or arrange energetic compensation for their time / energy / expertise, be wary of creating a situation in which you are depending on Psychedelic Spaceholding to live as it can easily create a profiteering situation in which finances are prioritized over ethics due to a survival drive. 

You do not know your triggers

Knowledge and examination of one’s personal triggers is necessary to hold the deep compassionate space that may be called for in a session.

As an academic example, while I was enrolled in my master’s program in transpersonal therapy at the California Institute of Integral Studies {CIIS}, the idea of self-knowledge around personal therapist triggers when sitting with a client was repeatedly impressed upon us. Insofar as the therapist has a trigger around sexual assault, animal cruelty, pedophilia, racial violence, gender violence…etc…and the client desires to explore these aspects of themselves as a victim {or even victimizer}, the therapist needs to be aware of their bias and potentially refer the client elsewhere if the trigger is ‘hot’ or active enough to interfere with their ability to be present without projection or transference. Thus, there are likely some situations in which a particular Spaceholder may not be a good fit for that particular Journeyer such as when the Spaceholder has a trigger related to what the Journeyer wishes to work on.

When the Spaceholder’s characteristics are a trigger

Another situation in which the Spaceholder / Journeyer combination may not be the best fit is when the physical characteristics of the Spaceholder are related to the trauma of the Journeyer {eg. potential Spaceholder is a large Caucasian male, when Journeyer has experienced sexual assault at the hands of a large Caucasian male}. Over time as a relationship of trust develops and the material has been explored in a way that discharges some of the energy around it, the Journeyer may determine that it would be beneficial to have space held for them by someone who is reminiscent of their violator, but this needs to be carefully and clearly discussed, in so far as it greatly increases the risk of an adverse reaction as the likelihood of re-traumatization is significant.

Conversely, if both the Journeyer and Spaceholder feel capable of taking on a more advanced case, this may be an opportunity to directly address a past pattern in depth. Please be aware that this is ‘playing with fire’ in that triggers and projections will be actively brought to the fore, so it is recommended to bring in another Spaceholder in this process as the potential for the situation to become muddled is high.

Screening for Contraindications

Screening is essential to ensure the safety of the participant and making sure there are no contraindications to the specific ally / compound chosen, interactions with other medications / supplements, or latent or active psychological conditions that may be exacerbated or emerge based on family history. 

Psychedelics are not for everyone, and are specifically contraindicated for people who are already psychologically destabilized {eg. expereiencing unmanaged overwhelming mood swings, suicidal ideation, actively manic}.

There is also the risk for intense psychological experiences to activate latent destabilization factors, for example, Journeyers with schizophrenia in their bloodline are contraindicated for any type of technology that may trigger a psychotic episode, such as psychedelics, or even breathwork!

 Even something as seemingly benign as meditation is contraindicated for those who have significant embodied trauma.  {citations  :

Fortunately, trauma-informed meditation is shifting awareness in the field.

Ideally with a rigorous screening process the Spaceholder can preemptively steer the prospective Journeyer away from what has the high potential to be a negatively life-impacting psychedelic scenario with long term consequences, instead directing the Journeyers search for healing into another methodology that is of a lesser risk profile.

Initial screening for contraindications can be done via requiring a Spaceholder Questionnaire {an example of such can be found below}, with the findings corroborated though subsequent meetings in person or via phone calls.

              Sample Spaceholder Questionnaire

Spaceholder Inquiries / Logistical Intake

{Answers Required}

What is helpful for me to know about you in a spaceholding context?

Do you have any allergies to food, medication, plants, seasonal pollens, animals?

Do you have any medical conditions {eg. high blood pressure, epilepsy} ?

Are you sensitive to any supplements or medications? Do you know your neurochemistry / neurotypical patterns {eg. high/low seratonin}?

What medications are you taking?

What supplements/herbs are you taking?

What is your mental health history?

How is your current mental health?

What is the mental health history of your genetic line {most especially of importance is any blood relatives with schizophrenia or related conditions} ?

Do you have any preferences for how you are related to {eg. Pronoun preferences, prefer phone over email when possible, able to understand self-dialogue with greater clarity via writing/speaking} ?

If you go into a non-verbal space, how do you prefer to be supported ?

What are ways that you enjoy becoming comforted (eg. head/hair being pet, arm around the shoulder, heavy blanket, verbal acknowledgement that someone is present with you) ?

What helps you feel connected (eg. eye contact, words of affirmation) ?

Do you have any patterns it would be useful to know (eg. needing to feel very welcomed into things, that if you are solo for more than 30 minutes you would like to be checked in on, feeling smothered if not allowed to be silent and quiet for long periods of time) ?

What are your triggers? How do you prefer these to be interacted with (avoided, gently questioned/ leaned into, etc.) ?

Do you have any injuries? Body traumas?

What is your trauma history?

What are your common interrelation patterns / roles (eg. fixer, helper, mediator, avoidant / anxious / fearful attachment) ?

What is your experience with altered states of consciousness {eg. birth, breath work, out of body experiences, near death experiences}?

What is your history with transformational experiences {planned/unexpected, what helped with integration, what spaceholder actions were helpful, can you extrapolate any patterns from your experiences, what helped you through any challenging moments}?

What is your experience with extreme states of feeling / sensation {eg. Bodily injury, emotional overwhelm, anxiety}?

What are your feelings around death?

If you thought you were actively dying what would you do? How could you be reassured / made to feel peace?

Do you find yourself sensitive to consciousness altering compounds {eg. stimulants {caffeine} or depressants {alcohol} } ?

What helps you fall asleep or wind down?

What types of music, artists, songs, or sounds uplift you or make you feel at home?

What would your perfect playlist for a transformational journey sound like {please feel free to create this playlist!}?

Are there any scents, foods, clothes, or sensations that comfort and ground you {eg. Lemon, a favorite robe or heavy blanket} ?

Who are your emergency contacts?

Under what conditions do you want them contacted?

Have you told them what you are doing and that you may contact them {it is recommended you inform them ahead of time if you can, but if you cannot please mention why not – eg. they would disapprove due to their religious background, they have no experience with altered states and would be concerned for my safety…}?

Under what circumstances would you want emergency services contacted ?

Do you desire ego death? {If yes, mandatory to answer ‘So you want to experience Ego Death?’ and ‘Ego Death Living Will’ addendum below }

>< >< >< 

Optional but highly encouraged 

>< >< >< 

Recommended for Reflection & Journaling

{answers beneficial for your own work but not required to be shared – although if you feel comfortable, sharing is encouraged}


Intention prompts :

Journaling on the questions that call your inspiration forth helps crystalize your intention / inquiry – feel free to choose your favorite(s) and focus on those.

 You may also wish to create a vision / mood / art board  for what you desire for your experience {feel free to combine mediums – collage via cutting out photographs, writing, drawing, mixed media}.

It is recommended to write out a phrase to your future self while you are in the transformational experience in case of difficulty {eg. This too shall pass, remember you ancestors supporting you, you are physically safe – surrender}.


Who are your guardians, allies, ancestors spirits ?

What patterns are you seeking to let go of ?

How have these patterns helped you survive in the past ?

What does the new pattern feel like in your body?

How will you embody the new pattern, what helps you remember the new form?

What roles do you enjoy playing ? What roles do you wish you could play more ?

What do you wish you could tell your past self?

How does your shadow express itself, what forms does it take, what are its character traits? When it shows up how do you acknowledge & integrate it ?

What would it look and feel like to embody the drama of the stories you are letting go of / stepping into through performance ? How can you turn up the dial on emotion to ‘fully feel to free’ it ? What would turning your trauma into drama look like?

Are there any wounds you are protecting that are binding your energy? How can you let them go ?

What keeps you from vulnerability, intimacy, play ?

What stories are you telling about yourself ?

Creating an altar : If you were to make an altar, what would you put on it?  {eg. natural objects of significance to you, stones, healing tools, art, photographs of loved ones, candles, feathers, flowers, adornments} {you are strongly encouraged to make this altar and spend time with it regularily}. 


What are you seeking to explore?

What parts of yourself do you want to know better?

What are you praying for help with ?

What mantras / phrases help you feel supported?

What actions from others, objects, people, activities make you feel supported?

Who are your current prominent allies (animal, plant, mentors, teachers) ?

What grounds you (food, touch, words, questions, affirmations) ?

What creates safe sanctuary space for you ?

How does immediate integration of insights manifest in your body and actions {what does it feel and look like} ?

How do you need to be seen ?

What wants to be seen in relationship ?

How can you give yourself the love that you seek from others?

What would it look like if you gave yourself more permission?

What outcome would make this experience a success in your eyes?

What creates sacred space for you ?

What movements/action patterns/activities help your energy move?


What archetypes do you wish to embody?

If everything could be as you wish, what would happen – what would this look and feel like (multisensory) ?

What reminders will help you embody the realizations of the new way you are exploring (visual, movement, sound)?

What would your future self say to you?

In what signs & sigils does your future self communicate to you?

What is your new story ?


What is your life’s purpose?

How does spirit speak to you?

When would heaven on earth look and feel like to you?

What would a ‘dreams coming true’ field look and feel like to you?

How would it be to see as god/spirit/the underlying field sees?

How would it be to see as medicine sees?

How is your relationship to God / spirit?

How is your relationship to yourself ?

How is your relationship to : friends, family, lover{s} , community, and world?

How can you embody sacred innocence ?

What is creator’s plan for you ?

What is your life’s purpose ?

What is your birthright?

What did you do as a child {what could captivate you} ?

How can you know as spirit knows?

How can you choose easy life?

How can you be the vibration of your choice?

How can you live as divinely intended ?

What are the desires of your sacred heart?

What helps you know you are living in divine timing ?

 How will you know you are in alignment with your life’s purpose?

How will the reminders come across to get in closer alignment?

How do you relate to your dreams?


Although psychedelics are “known to be generally safe” (as the lethal toxicity of these compounds is typically far higher than the active dosages) there are “potential risks and contraindications” for any mind-altering experience2.

Psychedelics are strongly contraindicated {not recommended – extremely high risk of adverse effects} if :

You have blood relatives with serious destabilizing mental health conditions, especially schizophrenia or dissociative conditions.

In the case of the following conditions in which psychedelics are not recommended, if you still proceed with choosing to partake of a psychedelic experience, the need for a more experienced ‘sitter’ educated in supporting you in your condition becomes even more paramount.

Psychedelics are also not recommended / more risky if :


Altered states of consciousness are inherently destabilizing to ‘base’ consciousness, and are not recommended if :

Basic set and setting are not great {eg. somewhere where you feel unsafe or unwelcome, somewhere where you cannot control the temperature / level of sound, a place where you do not have access to the things you know you need to take care of yourself such as a bathroom or shower}. 

You do not have a support network to help you integrate the experience, or somewhere you can go to recover and stabilize for at least a week

You are feeling a high degree of fear that is causing you to have a bodily reaction

Potential situations that are not following best practice {other choices more effective} :

Using Ketamine with someone who has a history of dissociative trauma experiences 

In case of the following it is best to delay the session until there can be more time spaciousness / trust building / better set and setting : 

The Journeyer has only heard scary tales about psychedelics / bad trips and is very fearful 

You are unable to create a situation when risks are mediated due to physical constraints { eg. there is not a space where someone can lay down and move around}.

If you need to be driving or operating heavy machinery while still altered, or very likely to need to be {eg. street sweeping}

There is pressure around time {eg. only have a certain amount of time for this experience that is less then a day}

There is pressure around work needing to be done soon {eg. have a lot of stressful activities the next day that you need to be fully functional for}

If you are pursuing a higher dose experience or ego death but are significantly scared of surrendering and do not trust your spaceholder fully. The key is to surrender and to practice surrender – this is why trust is needed between Spaceholder and Journeyer – the Journeyer must trust that the Spaceholder has their best interests at heart and actually has the ability to protect their physical body from harm. There are methods to build trust between Spaceholder and Journeyer over time and more mild ways to upack fear around surrender. 

Classic Risk Reduction

Know you body 

know your mind 

know you substance 

know your source

From – a deep resource on all things altered states. Please utilize that resource and support them as you can. 

If what you are ingesting is a natural material, know the lineage of the use of that medicine and how it is traditionally used. Additionally, support those who 

Ideally get a test kit to check for the purity of what you are ingesting 

Know where you are getting them from, if there is variation ask how strong they are.


Deciding on Dose

Deciding on Dose

There are big differences between holding space for Journeyers on low / medium / high / heroic doses. There are significant steps up to risk as the dosage increases. If someone is explicitly desiring an ego death experience, or they are working with a dosage that is likely to lead to this result {and considering the likelihood of altered state experiences to activate existential thoughts} having pre-negotiated ‘Ego Death Living Will’ agreements are essential. This type of document acts as a ‘Living Will’ for the Ego of the Journeyer to pre-consent to what actions they desire to have taken in the event of a partial, complicated, challenging ego death in which they may no longer be present as a ‘rational individual’.

So you want to experience Ego Death?

Definition as spectrum

Ego Death Living Will

Why do you desire to experience ego death?

What do you predict this would look and feel like for you?

What is your experience with death?

Have you ever had a near death, out of body, or grave bodily harm experience?

What helped you in that extreme experience?

If you have not had an experience like this, what was the most fearful experience of your life?

What helped you handle it?

What would you do if your existential frameworks / sense of meaning disappeared?

How would you rebuild motivation and meaning in your life?

What support systems to do you have in place in case you are needing additional support after an ego death experience?

What type of resources do you have in case you need to take a sabbatical to recenter?

What integration resources do you have?

If you are in a state where you are in a passive post-verbal state, in that you cannot communicate / do not respond to questions, what do you want your Spaceholder to do?

If you are in an agitated post-verbal state, what do you want your Spaceholder to do?

If you are in an actively violent state {either dangerous to yourself or others}, what do you want your Spaceholder to do?

If you wish to be restrained in these circumstances, what type of restraints {eg. having someone sit on your pelvis and hold your arms to your chest, humane restraints, straightjacket}? How would it ideally be done {eg. initially giving you an option to voluntarily enter into restraints, explaining why this is being done, using as little force as necessary. Starting with more basic restraints and then ramping up}?

Under what circumstanced would you want emergency services to be contacted?

Do you have literal living will, what are the directives on it?

Spaceholder Responsibility

              Are you prepared, and do you have the capacity, as a Spaceholder to step into the responsibility of the outcome of your session with the Journeyer? This may involve extensive integration, helping the Journeyer find meaning in their life after an existential emergency, nursing them back to mental health if they experience a depressive dip, and being their primary source of support. The less of a network of support the Journeyer has, the greater the likelihood that they will need to mostly lean on you. As the Spaceholder you should be prepared to take on responsibility for the Journeyer’s wellbeing. If you do not feel capable of doing so, please strongly reconsider holding a ceremonial container for someone else. If you are doing volunteer work there is inherently less of a sense of responsibility as you are donating your time ‘in the wild’ and not administering compounds {in so far as you are not the active agent causing and thus needing to take responsibility for the outcomes of administering}. Even in a volunteering context it is wise to consider that people will bond to you as you will be going through what is likely what of the most profound experiences of the Journeyer’s life, and the Journeyer may desire additional contact after the initial aid they receive. Journeyers who experience profound changes in consciousness may feel as though you are the only person who understands and who they can connect to, so be prepared for the possibility of lifetime attachment.

              For example, even after a decade of time has passed since I originally held space for Journeyers experiencing an existential crisis ‘in the wild’ I am still in touch with them and providing sporadic support.

              Consider what level of responsibility for the Journeyer’s well being you are ready and able to take on and only operate to that level of work as a Spaceholder. Ideally within the container of the Spaceholding context the agreements around level of care and follow up are laid out in the Sanctuary Space guidelines.

Spaceholding philosophies

              Differences between Zendo, Burning Man Green Dot Rangers, Strangers, smaller gatherings, DanceSafe

In an individualized setting, it is helpful to have the Journeyer go through the following Spaceholder Negotiation so they can pre-consent

Journeyer Preparatory Flow

  1. Journeyer answers ‘mission critical’ spaceholding questions
  2. Fill out Spaceholding menu preferences for each item on a scale from 1-10, with specifics if there are conditional consent aspects
  3. Gather materials {see Journeyer materials list}
  4. Keeping a dream/journey journal for at least a week before the session, ideally as soon as you know there is something you want to explore/work on in a Spaceholding session, paying attention to your body, intuitions, cultivating abilities to note subtle sensations, noticing any guides/spirit animals that come into your life during this time of preparation
  5. Preparing the playlists {ideally both Journeyer and Guide create several : one that is uplifting  {classical, world music, sacred sounds from the lineages that the Journeyer or Spaceholder has studied are good for this}, one that is ambient / wordless, and one that is related to any memories / experiences the Journeyer wants to examine {for example if letting go of an old relationship, songs that remind you of that connection}
  6. Cultivate energy – take care of yourself physically, emotionally, spiritually, exercise daily (even if just going out for a walk), eat well, engage in a contemplative practice, get deep regular sleep, take your vitamins/supplements
  7. A week before (at bare minimum 3 days) halt the use of other intoxicants, including caffeine and alcohol

Spaceholder Preparatory Flow

  1. Based on the ‘Mission Critical’ Spaceholding questions. Spaceholder researches : any contraindications between medical conditions and the altered state technique, potential supplement reactions, body mass / dose recommendations of supplement based on intentions, refresher on standard duration of journey, access to accurate scale, previous knowledge of strength of this particular batch of supplements
  2. Additional reading on the specifics of the type of development or trauma the Journey is wanting to work on {eg. emotional incest, menopause, end of life anxiety}. Does the Journeyer recommend any specific media resources to help the Spaceholder educate themselves in how to best support the Journeyer?
  3. Spaceholder meta-preparation backend : recording your dreams, getting clear in nature, tending to yourself in self-care so you are at peak energy and presence

Journeyer Packing List

Wear loose fitting clothing, ideally of natural fibers for breathability, wear layers that can be easily removed.

In conceptualizing what to pack, bring items as if you are going on an overnight trip to a place with a wide-ranging climate.

Items to consider packing : warm blanket, comfort objects {childhood stuffed animal, blankie}, books you might like to be read from {children’s books you loved when you were young are recommended, anything uplifting and inspiring}, robe, warm coat, hat, scarf/fabric, blindfold, earplugs, any medications you may need, any supplements you might need {ginger tincture is good for nausea}, towel in case you want to shower, change of clothes in case you need it, photos of family / mentors / loved ones / guides / spirit animals, any objects to create an altar with, hygiene products, essential oils / incense you really like, objects / activities / media that helps ground you

Spaceholder Packing List

Fresh ginger, tea brewing supplies {knife, cutting board, kettle, hot plate, mug}, ginger tincture, ginger capsules, any specific supplements, melatonin, sleep aids, earplugs, eyeshades, warm blanket, warm coat (size to fit Journeyer, oversize is good), any nourishment or self-care objects you need to be sitting for the expected length of the session plus 4 hours, timekeeping device, music playlists, speaker, squish/fluff/bedding, any specific healing implements you use, journal, art supplies, recorder, video/camera if desired by Journeyer {humane restraints & hard points in the case of extreme sessions}

Spaceholder Negotiation

              Use the Menu of Spaceholding Offerings below as a Yes / No / Maybe rating list for the Journeyer to give pre-consent to any actions being taken by the Spaceholder on their behalf. The Journeyer can write how open they are to a specific technique on a 1-10 scale, and also if there are any conditional consent factors to consider {eg. ‘Ask me if it’s ok in the moment before you do this; if I am in a post-verbal state, narrate why you are doing this}. The answers to this list will also reveal not only the Journeyer’s preferences, but also their expectations for the style of the session and may revel heretofore unexamined trauma around trust or certain types of relating. This format lets the Journeyer decide in an unpressured spacious environment what they are and are not comfortable with. An additional bonus is that the Spaceholder can add specific talents that the Journeyer would not know of to this list to seed creative ideas and solutionary thinking. Finally, through the utilization of methodologies like these, we can create agreements that shed light on all of the proceedings so there are no shadows for shady predatory shamans to lurk in {for more information of this issue please go to the ethics section}.

Menu of Spaceholding Offerings

Journeyer Inquiry : how much personal space do you prefer? Will this change as you get to know someone?

  1. Nonphysical Neutral Non-Active Presence
    Impartial Silent witness
    Useful to have someone watching your body if you are going on a deep journey so that the part of your mind that is designed to be concerned over your well being can relax knowing it is in the presence of someone who has been assigned this task. Allows for more easeful surrender, reduces likelihood of paranoia, panic, creates a secure attachment figure who acts as a reality anchor in case anything goes sideways, allows for someone in a baseline, rational, sober mind state to act as a sounding board for an action {eg. you would like to call an ambulance because your heart is beating loudly and you think you are in a medical emergency, but your Sitter listens to your pulse, determines it is within a normal range, and offers the suggestion that you are physically ok and you are hearing your heartbeat more loudly due to increased auditory sensitivity
    Ideally the sitter will have knowledge of basic first aid and a kit for such, emergency contact information for the journeyer, information about their allergies, access to medication in case of an allergic reaction, Naloxone spray, a pulse reader and blood oxygen level monitor, knowledge of normal pulse level v elevated v concerning due to duration
    If the journeyer has medical conditions that are relevant to the experience or may come up, that the supplies needed to potentially care for them are on hand, such as those who have a history of fainting having smelling salts.
    Accompaniment on a hike in nature
    Researching the area, terrain, and timeline beforehand strongly recommended
    Reality keeper/anchor
    Carefully noting dose amount/time taken, notes about reactions at various time stamps, keeping knowledge of the duration curve of the experience in the forefront of the mind, assurances at what part of the intensity curve they are, assurances that they have taken a compound {they are not going insane} and will return to baseline in {howevermany hours},
    Recorder/ notetaker
    Can take physical notes on paper in notebook

    audio record the session {and make sure the recording device is always close enough to your mouth to hear you}
    before and after

    at radiant moments of realization

    when engaged in a cathartic release, spontaneous mudra, movement pattern, afterwards as a testimonial to yourself to help with integration and keep the memory of what was learned fresh and alive and able to be replayed
    1. Body mirror
      Spaceholder monitors their own body state and makes recommendations to change the setting or environment
      I notice I am feeling a bit cold and am going to go get my sweater, want me to get your coat for you?
      I am feeling thirsty and notice that you have not drank anything in the past two hours, can I get you a glass of your beverage of choice?
      I am noticing that the humming of the dryer is distracting me, can I turn it off while we are in this room?
      I am really needing to go to the bathroom, do you need to go?

      Other environmental alterations to consider : room temperature, sun exposure, biting insects, brightness of light, ambient noises, stuffiness of air in room
    2. Narrator : analyzing or calling attention to what is happening in real time is immanently valuable because feedback is best when timely, using present patterns as a living learning laboratory {combines well with ‘therapy in moment’ or ‘reminders of intentions’
      1. Discuss : In what types of scenarios would you like the witness to break silence
        1. If they notice you are tense in your body, balling up your fists, do you want them to neutrally mention it to bring it to your attention?
        2. Do you want your sitter to ask questions about such somatic signals {this indicates more of a non-physical noting presence}? About how often would you like this information, every 5 minutes, 15 minutes, 30 minutes, hour, or whenever there is a change?
        3. What about suggestions for your comfort or physical wellbeing, for example if you have not drunk water in many hours, do you want your sitter to make a recommendation towards hydration? Would you like them to fetch you the water?
      2. More hand-on narrator : asking why, in curious questions mode, noticing details, pointing out patterns, making suggestions of possible connections between aspects of the Journeyer’s past / old patterns / current behaviors {and if even more active, helping create a new pattern or story in the moment}
        1. Another flavor : playful presence, kids exploring perspective, rhyming storybook narrator, trickster / clown energy
  2. Nonphysical Active Presence : reading the energy of the Journeyer, intervening when the SItter senses the Journeyer is unnecessarily struggling or when the Sitter could improve the situation by making an offer
    1. Fetching items
      Warm blanket, coat, robe
      If the Spaceholder notes that the Journeyer is shivering they can suggest to put more layers on
      Pillows / squish / fluff
      If the Spaceholder notes that the Journeyer is changing positions in a way that may be indicating physical discomfort, they can offer to create a more comfortable nest
      Water / tea / elixirs
      The Spaceholder can oversee brewing and fetching tea {ginger tea cures nausea}
      Magnesium elixir good for relaxing tense muscles, Charlie horses

      Putting a bit of salt in the water helps remineralize it {if reverse osmosis or distilled water for example} and create the conditions for more ready uptake of hydration in the body
      Pre-planning of nourishment before, during, and after
      Typically appetite will be diminished, but having fruits, sprouted nuts and seeds, and easefully digested items on hand can be helpful for restoring energy or grounding the Journeyer. Occasionally hunger can come across as nausea if the Journeyer has been fasting
      1. Making suggestions for a change of scenery – going for a nature walk, or activity – reminding journeyer that music, artmaking supplies are available
    2. Eye gazing
    3. Audible relaxed breathing
    4. Reading aloud from {pre-planned} books of importance for Journeyer
    5. Guided meditation
      1. For initial relaxation
        Classic full body relaxation starting from toes to top of head, can be pre-recorded {*pre-preparation*}
        Presence to breathing

        Presence to sensations, the experience of noticing them then letting them fall away
      2. Visualization to seek out guides, allies, colors, poses/positions of power, objects of power
      3. Somatic visualization / Deeper into experience of moving through something : body focused, following sensations where they are in the body as they move, diving into them, describing them in rich language {hot/cold, intensity, size, metaphor}, the Spaceholder encourages you to go more into the movements, shaking, moving the lantern of your attention to different parts of your body, amplifying whatever is happening
    6. Resolving trauma
      1. Past resolution
        Writing a letter to communicate what the Journeyer was not able to in the moment to the person{s} that need to hear it
        Witnessing / guiding through an ‘in the chair’ exercise in which the Journeyer speaks to the people they need to clear with directly as through they are there
    7. Verbal somatic trauma release guiding
      If you are working specifically to release a particular trauma and you have had {pre-preparation} conversations hearing the details of the story, the Spaceholder can help guide the Journeyer in re-experiencing and re-writing the tale of trauma through what had previously been a not successful ‘fight’ or ‘flight’ into a successful one
      This is ideally done with a somatic therapist, someone trained in somatic experiencing, or someone who has read Peter Levine’s body of work
  3. Nonphysical Positive Presence
    Guiding grounding practices
    Going outside and putting bare feet on the earth

    Soak in Epsom salt tub {or just foot bath}
    Epsom salts have high magnesium, and magnesium is most readily absorbed through the skin, helping with muscle cramps and relaxation
    Grounding visualizations – energy cord going into earth, rooting into core of planet, darkness draining into earth, light coming into crown
    Eating / drinking / going to the bathroom

    Loving Eye Gazing

    Role play
    Family constellations – Spaceholder role play family members

    Flipping role – Spaceholder takes identity of Journeyer, Journeyer takes on role of challenging person to find understanding and compassion for their perspective
    Spaceholder takes on identity of difficult person, Journeyer can practice speaking their truth
    Works especially well if the Journeyer is scared of a particular situation – they can use this type of experiential exposure therapy as practice
    Trauma drama : different flavor of spaceholding, more from a trickster / clown humorous frame, amplifying all aspects, turning up the dial to ridiculously overblown to allow the issue to be fully seen, felt, and expressed so that the energy/trigger around it can discharge, acting as if you are on a reality TV show and you need higher drama for ratings / as if you are in a play / movie so the audience really feels it
    Live medicine music
    Spaceholder shares the medicine / folk songs of their lineage {eg. Lithuanian folk songs, South American medicine songs, drumming, holding a beat}
    Turning forks / singing bowls / sound healing

    Intention reminders
    More hands-on then a narrator, the Spaceholder, when inspired by intuition or the circumstances are relevant, reminds the Journeyer of their intention, the patterns they are reprogramming, any re-steering out of common thought loops {eg. self-defeating} that have been previously discussed
    Tending sacred smoke – if appropriate for the setting, tending a sacred fire, candle, essential oil diffuser {could be a candle diffuser or of water depending on the climate, temperature, and risk profile/safety precautions}, or coal upon which resins or woods are burned {frankincense, palo santo, sage}
    Holding ritual space
    Cleansing the space that is to be worked in, and the implements that may be used in the work
    Cleansing Spaceholder{s} and Journeyer{s} as they come into the space

    Journeyer stating their intention aloud
    Calling upon guides, allies, ancestors, giving gratitude for presence of the land, honoring the peoples who have stewarded the environment
    Water rituals : Imbuing water with intention, steam bath cleansing, shower cleansing, water anointment, pouring water into open mouth for Journeyer and stating blessings
    Fire ritual : burning letters and other objects that no longer serve

    Earth ritual : putting bare feet on earth to ground, burying objects that no longer serve
    Energy work on Journeyer

    Guiding artmaking / co-creation
    Making a nature altar

    Creating an altar together before the session

    Nature therapy walk with narration

    Divination / magical practices {if the Spaceholder is a magical practitioner and Journeyer is open to this work}
    Banishing rituals

    Circle of protection

    Making talismans / amulets {good for Integration}

    Physical Presence
    Light touch : benefits include being able to measure skin temperature directly, monitoring pulse directly, monitoring muscle tone / responsiveness to physical stimuli directly, easy way to ground
    Can put pressure on the feet

    Light pressure on the temples / head

    Hand holding
    Consistent presence in a way that is welcome and non-threatening or invasive to most people
    Hair petting
    Many people feel soothed when their hair is pet, combed, or brushed rhythmically
    Skin petting
    Light traces on the outer edge of the Journeyer’s body can help physically remind them where they end and the world begins
    Two hearts and chest cavities in contact allows the electromagnetic fields of the heart to overlap
    Soothing sensation play : Feathering, hair spider on scalp, petting with soft fabric
    Medium Touch
    Light or Medium Bodywork
    Hands, elbows used on surface/fascia/top musculature of journeyers body 1-5 on intensity scale of 1-10
    Laying side by side
    Both on backs, side of ribcage to side of ribcage, side bodies connected
    Both on side, one as big spoon one as little spoon, curled in fetal position with side body contacting ground possible
    Listening to heartbeat
    Journeyer laying on back, sitter lays with head on chest, or vice versa
    1. High Touch {recommended to only engage in these ways if you are trained in the somatic arts}
      1. Inversions
        Either from a hard point or on the back of the Spaceholder {if they are trained in contact improv / SomaSenZ bodwork}
      2. Assisted stretching
        Old injury work

        Diet consultations {often comes up when the Journeyer witnesses what the Spaceholder is eating and asks why}
      3. Bodywork ceremony / surgery
      4. Human gravity blanket
        Journeyer laying on back, sitter, lays with heart over their stomach

        Journeyer lays on stomach, sitter lays on top of them as human gravity blanket stomach down, adjusting weight as needed
      5. Physical trauma release hands on guiding
        Wrestling, fighting, allowing the previously unsuccessful trauma response to complete with a win for the body and nervous system {expert training in somatic trauma therapy needed}

              Packing lists



Upon arrival to the space

          If the space is new to you, inquire with the host as to lights, how to change the temperature, if cooking is ok, where the restroom is, any rules of the space, idiosyncrasies about anything that might be used, and how they prefer it is reset when done.

Specifically ask where you are welcome to roam, how loud you can be and where, and locations that nudity is welcome.

Space preparation

              Preparing the space – know how much sound you can make, soundsystem for music {can be headphones for Journeyer only}. 

Journeyer gives phone and car keys to the Spaceholder. Journeyer shares how to unlock phone if this is needed.


Reviewing notes taken out loud with Journeier 

Journal Prompts 


Are there any images, animal/ plant allies, spirits that emerged in your experience that you can use to anchor your new patterns and insights ?

Are there any words, mantras, memes, phrases, or encapsulated understandings that emerged to help you remember your new way?

Are there any objects, pieces of adornment {jewelry, face/body paint markings, pieces of clothing} , or material(s), colors, actions, movements, activities that will help continuously remind you to deepen into your new way ?

Did any sounds, chants, toning, songs come through this experience you’d like to carry forward into the future?

What is the elevator speech of your experience {3 minute summary} ?

What would help you with your self care? Are there any new practices that emerged from your experience that you would like to incorporate into your routine?

You may wish to create a vision board, journal, write a list, or write out a meditation to place you back in the state(s) that served your growth moving forward from the experience.


Nervous System Nourishment  

If you are working with someone who prefers to self-regulate or if you are needing regulation as the Spaceholder, the following activities can help you self-generate a sense of wellbeing. 

How to Self-Generate Oxytocin 

Solo self-soothing : how to generate oxytocin if you are by yourself :

Oxytocin is the love & bonding hormone. Oxytocin has been linked to wellbeing and reduced stress levels and stimulating mechanisms related to restoration and healing, and thus, contributing long-term to better health profiles and longevity. Oxytocin reaches several important areas in the central nervous system {CNS} and is involved in the regulation of social interactive behaviors, fear, aggression, perception of pain, calm, wellbeing, and stress reactions (by modulating the activity of the HPA-axis and the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system). The half-life of oxytocin in the circulation of humans is 30 min (De Groot et al., 1995). A similar half-life has been demonstrated in the cerebrospinal fluid, but might be even longer in different parts of the brain (Jones and Robinson, 1982). [1]

Low oxytocin has been implicated in attachment disorders, compulsive behaviors such as overeating, addictions to gambling/sex, and substance abuse as a type of ‘self-medication to restore oxytocin function’. Low levels of oxytocin have been demonstrated in individuals with borderline disease, certain types of depression, and schizophrenia (for a review, see Kim et al., 2013). Also, some pain syndromes such as fibromyalgia and recurrent abdominal pain in children are associated with low levels of oxytocin (Alfven et al., 1994; Anderberg and Uvnäs-Moberg, 2000). In addition, previous experience of traumatic events is associated with an increased incidence of low oxytocin levels or stress related reduction of oxytocin levels (Pierrehumbert et al., 2010). [2]

The psychological clinical literature has demonstrated the following as oxytocin-generating behaviors :

  1. Pleasant Mental Experiences

An invitation to daydream, feed your fantasies, and to pursue small pleasures.

“Oxytocin is released in response to pleasant mental experiences. Such a release of oxytocin may, e.g., be induced by seeing, hearing, smelling, or thinking of well known and loved persons, but also by other pleasant situations (Uvnäs-Moberg, 1998; Uvnäs-Moberg et al., 2005).”

2. Activation of the Somatosensory Nerves

Get moving : Shaking, dance, movement meditations, physical activity, being in nature, deep breathing.

“Oxytocin is also released in response to activation of somatosensory nerves, which mediate non-painful and pleasant (non-noxious) information, e.g., induced by touch, stroking, warmth, and light pressure of the skin (Uvnäs-Moberg and Petersson, 2010).”[3]

3. Touch

Give yourself a massage, dry skin brush, apply lotion or oils to your whole body (especially after taking a bath or shower). Also, breast massage specifically has been shown to release oxytocin.

Areas of the body with more receptors to stimulation include the feet, hands, lips, tongue, and face. Thus high-oxytocin releasing activities are : walking barefoot on the ground, manipulating textured objects with the hands, making physical art (pottery, natural/ found sculpture, drawing, painting), building intricate detailed objects, puzzles.

4. Warmth

A warm coat, cozy sweater, blanket, warm bath, sauna, steam bath, hot tub, turning up the temperature.

“Warm temperature stimulates oxytocin release in rats (Stock and Uvnäs-Moberg, 1988; Uvnäs-Moberg et al., 1993a; Lund et al., 2002)”[4]

“As Otto Fenichel has said : ‘to get affection’ means ‘to get warmth’. They are ‘frozen’ personalities who ‘thaw’ in a ‘warm’ atmosphere, who can situ for hours in a warm bath or on a radiator.” [5]

5. Meditation

Gratitude meditations and meditations in which you think of loved ones are particularly effective.

6. Thinking about beloveds

“Oxytocin may even be released by seeing, hearing or by merely thinking of the other beloved person (Carter and Keverne, 2002; Grewen et al., 2005; Light et al., 2005; Holt-Lunstad et al., 2008).”[6]

7. Food intake & digestion

Especially recommended is eating food that is very textually stimulating, or requires a lot of chewing. Foods that involve a lot of manipulation, such as shelling pistachios, or picking up item by item (such as berries) thus involving your hands, doubles the pleasure via the oxytocin released by the numerous nerve endings in the well-innervated fingers.

“Food intake is also associated with oxytocin release and several mechanisms are involved in the oxytocin release induced by ingested food. When food touches the oral mucosa oxytocin is released following activation of touch receptors in the oral cavity and when the ingested food reaches the gastrointestinal tract, gut hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) is released from the duodenum in particular in response to proteins and fat. Sensory fibers of the vagal nerves are then activated by CCK. The sensory vagal nerve fibers relay in the NTS wherefrom neurons project to the PVN, where oxytocin is released both into the circulation and into the brain (for references, see Uvnäs-Moberg and Prime, 2013). Oxytocin can also be released following activation of other sensory nerves originating from, e.g., the oral mucosa (Lupoli et al., 2001), and the gastrointestinal tract (vagal nerves; Stock and Uvnäs-Moberg, 1988)” [7]

8. Suckling / Oral Stimulation / Oral fixations

If you don’t have access to an enthusiastic nipple, some replacements are drinking from a straw, pursing & putting your lips on bottles, pacifiers, drinking warm liquids, bubbly beverages, and sucking on hard candies/lollypops. Other adaptive / neutral activities related to this pathway include chewing gum and applying chapstick / lipstick. 

“Suckling is also linked to oxytocin release as the act of suckling per se induces oxytocin release by activation of touch receptors in the oral cavity (Lupoli et al., 2001). Oxytocinergic mechanisms may be involved in the calming, anti-stress, and growth promoting effects of the suckling in breastfeeding infants, but also in response to sucking of a pacifier (Uvnäs-Moberg et al., 1987). It is even possible that the dependency of other types of suckling related behaviors, e.g., smoking of cigarettes and even drinking of alcohol (Uvnäs-Moberg et al., 1993b), may involve an oxytocin linked component triggered by the suckling itself and not only by the pharmacological effects of nicotine and alcohol.”[8]

9. Interacting with pets

“Oxytocin levels peak significantly in both dog owners and dogs when they interact and in particular when the owner strokes and caresses her dog (Odendaal and Meintjes, 2003; Miller et al., 2009; Handlin et al., 2011). Oxytocin is however also released when the dogs see and want to approach the owner. Pet ownership is associated with lower blood pressure, serum triglycerides, and cholesterol levels (Allen et al., 2002).” If you have severe attachment problems and are too afraid of humans in order to receive any support from them, studies show that you can receive the same oxytocin benefits from interacting with a friendly dog or having a pet.[9]

10. Seeing friends or pets approach

When interacting with other humans or animals, there are two oxytocin spikes that occur. The first oxytocin peak is induced when seeing and hearing “the other individual” (dog or the human) and is linked to active approach. The second peak occurs in physical contact (petting, shaking hands, giving massage). [10]

11. Self-Pleasuring

Not only does self-pleasuring release oxytocin (with a big release occurring at the moment of orgasm), but self-pleasuring also boosts the immune system !

A small 11 person study from Germany found that masturbation “confirmed transient increases in adrenaline and prolactin plasma concentrations” and that “sexual arousal and orgasm increased the absolute number of leukocytes, in particular natural killer cells (CD3-CD16+CD56+), in the peripheral blood.” The study concluded that “these findings demonstrate that components of the innate immune system are activated by sexual arousal and orgasm.” [11]

12. Electrical play

“low intensity electrical stimulation releases oxytocin in rats (Stock and Uvnäs-Moberg, 1988; Uvnäs-Moberg et al., 1993a; Lund et al., 2002)”[12]

13. Eu-Stress

Eustress is non-paralyzing ‘adaptive’ stress. Low levels of ‘beneficial’ stress that is not overwhelming but motivates active coping behaviors (rather then falling into a lethargic / defeated inactive depression). For example, completing a ‘life purpose project’ that you always put off but would want as part of your legacy.

“In addition, oxytocin may also be released by mental and sensory stimuli that are perceived as stressful. In this case oxytocin is activated in parallel with the stress system and the role of oxytocin in these situations may be to dampen stress responses and facilitate coping behaviors (Neumann, 2002).”[13]

{bonus methods for those not sheltering in place solo}

If you have the good fortune of not being solo, you can also enjoy the following interpersonal interactions that release oxytocin.

Now may be a good time to consider a move to co-habitation, via cooperative, community house, or intentional community.

“Many studies demonstrate that the health profile of people, who live in good relationships, is better than for those who live alone. They, e.g., have lower blood pressure and a decreased risk for cardiovascular disease. They have less infections and the risk for some types of cancer is reduced. People who live in good relationships may even look younger and live longer than those, who live alone.”[14]

14. Platonic touch (cuddling)

“Oxytocin may be released when individuals of both sexes and all ages touch each other, given that the relationship is perceived as positive.”[15]

15. Massage

“Treatment with massage is linked to oxytocin release – pulses of oxytocin can be observed both in the individual receiving massage and in the masseur (gathered by repeated blood samples from Uvnäs-Moberg, 2004). Several positive effects occur during a massage session : levels of anxiety are decreased, the perception of wellbeing is increased and that of pain decreased, and both blood pressure and cortisol levels are lowered. Repeated massage treatments are associated with long-term expression of all these effects (Field, 2002, 2014).

Massage also helps in personal relationships – increasing the ability for friendly interaction, and may even be used to resolve marital conflicts (Ditzen et al., 2007)”[16]





[5] Touching : The Human Significance of Skin, Ashley Montagu, 1986, Harper Collins Publishers, pg.102-3












Main References :

and Touching : the Human Significance of Skin by Ashley Montagu